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Institute of Fuel Research and Development, BCSIR Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
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Last updated: 14th October 2021

Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) is the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices, using modern smart technology. Large-scale machine-to-machine communication (M2M) and the internet of things (IoT) are integrated for increased automation, improved communication and self-monitoring, and production of smart machines that can analyze and diagnose issues without the need for human intervention.



  • Many elements make up the Fourth Industrial Revolution, including mobile devices
  • Platforms for the Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Authentication and fraud detection Smart sensors
  • Big analytics and advanced processes
  • Location detection technologies (electronic identification)
  • Advanced human-machine interfaces
  • Augmented reality/wearables     
  • Multilevel consumer contact and customer profiling
  • Data visualization and prompted "live" training
  • On-demand computer system resources.


The term "Industry 4.0" or "smart factory" is defined by four primary components, which can be stated as follows:

  • Cyber-physical systems.
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Computer system resources are available on demand.
  • 'Cognitive computing'


In order to create value, Industry 4.0 connects a wide spectrum of new technologies. A virtual replica of the physical world can be created using cyber-physical systems that monitor physical processes. The potential to make decentralized autonomous decisions, achieving a significant level of autonomy, is one of the features of cyber-physical systems. The benefits provided in Industry 4.0 can be attributed to electronic identification, in which smart manufacturing necessitates the incorporation of specific technologies into the production process in order to be defined as being on the Industry 4.0 development path rather than digitization. 




The aircraft industry has been described as having "too low volume for major automation," although numerous aerospace businesses have examined Industry 4.0 ideas, and technologies have been created to enhance efficiency where the capital expense of automation cannot be justified. M4, a project by aerospace components manufacturer Meggitt PLC, is the epitome of this.

At Bosch, and throughout Germany, the growing use of the Industrial Internet of Things is considered as Industry 4.0. Machines that can forecast faults and initiate scheduled maintenance on their own, as well as self-organized coordination that responds to unanticipated changes in production, are examples of applications.